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A review on fungal diseases of marine fishes, shrimps algae and corals from Indian waters
Marine fisheries and aquaculture contribute to national productivity, socio-economic development and renewable aquatic living resources. Disease outbreaks have threatened profitable and viable aquaculture operations throughout the world. Diseases can cause large economic losses in aquaculture and, fungal infections are second only to bacterial diseases in economic importance. The health, survival and recruitment of any individual is affected when rendered susceptible for diseases under environmental and/or innate stresses. Information on these aspects deemed useful for stimulating marine mycopathological investigations in Indian waters has been brought together especially to highlight the importance of pathology in general and fungal diseases in particular. Fungal parasites in marine environment appear to be relatively fewer in number than those reported as parasites in terrestrial plants. According to fish pathologists, there are mycoses that hinder the functions of organs and kill the fish on mass-scale. Infections by oomycetous fungi are among the most widely known and most widespread mycoses of fishes. The genus Saprolegnia is ubiquitous in freshwater ecosystem is responsible for significant fungal infections of freshwater fish and eggs. Branchiomycosis caused by Branchiomyces sanguine is a much feared fungal disease of fishes almost all over the world especially on carp farms. Marine algae are diverse group of organisms ranging from unicellular to highly complex giant kelps. Among their parasites, fungi are the most dominant ones. Shell disease in bivalves is reported to be due to parasitic fungi. These fungi play an important role in biodegradation of calcareous substrate including live-animal shells. Occurrence of fungi in healthy and diseased corals has also been widely reported the world over. For more information, read A review on fungal diseases of algae, marine fishes, shrimps and corals by N. Ramaiah in Indian J. Mar. Sci.: 35(4); 2006; 380-387.
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